Adverse Childhood Experiences and Trauma
Objectives
~ Explore the relationship between ACEs and trauma
~ Identify the impact of ACEs and traumatic injury on mental, physical and interpersonal health in adults
~ Explore risk factors for ACEs and subsequent prevention and intervention measures.

Overview of LTE of ACEs
~ Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that children experience before age 18 years. Studies have linked exposure to ACEs and negative health, and developmental and behavioral outcomes.
~ Traumatic Event: Direct or indirect exposure to an event that involved the possibility of death or serious injury
~ Traumatic Injury: Psychological consequences sometimes experienced after a trauma.
~ 61% of adults surveyed across 25 states reported that they had experienced at least one type of ACE, and nearly 1 in 6 reported they had experienced four or more types of ACEs.
~ Over 50% of adolescents have been exposed to ACEs which can have detrimental effects on learning and behavior and is associated with increased suicidal ideation in adolescents
~ 68.1% of people who reported homelessness in childhood also reported experiencing four or more ACEs. Only 16.3% of people were never homeless in childhood reported experiencing four or more ACEs
~ ACEs have a different impact on the brain based upon the age of exposure, individual factors and microsystem protective factors
~ Strongest impacts are found for younger children (ages 2-5) and those living in households with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level
~ ACEs contribute to disturbances in cognitive and affective processing including
~ Heightened attention toward threatening stimuli
~ Increased experience of loneliness
~ Increased HPA-Axis dysregulation / reduced impulse control
~ Functional alterations in key stress–and emotion associated brain regions particularly the anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], amygdala and hippocampus (shrinkage)
~ Initial increase in amygdala volume after ACEs, followed by a decrease in volume due to persistent distress in later life
~ These brain regions are particularly susceptible to damage from trauma/HPA-Axis hyperactivation due to the high density of glucorticoid receptors
~ Exposure to specific types of ACEs selectively affect the sensory systems which were involved in perceiving the trauma
~ Mental disorders in individuals with ACE exposure tend to have more severe symptomatology, increased risk of comorbidity and are less likely to respond to standard treatments (why?)
~ In adults, ACE exposure is associated with
~ A wide range of physical disorders including obesity, dysregulation of the immune system, autoimmune disorders and abnormal pain perception with and without underlying causes
~ Stress itself can sensitize nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord which result in comparable changes in pain-perception and related behavior.
~ Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines
~ Disruptions in intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system
~ 200-400% increased risk of heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, skeletal fractures, depression, diabetes and prediabetes, liver disease

Summary
~ More than 60% of people have experienced ACEs
~ It is believed the rate of exposure to ACEs has increased significantly during COVID
~ Not everyone who experiences ACEs will develop traumatic injury
~ Injuries related to ACE trauma include:
~ Borderline and antisocial personality disorder
~ Mood disorders
~ PTSD
~ Addictions
~ Autoimmune issues including IBS, Chron’s, Diabetes
~ Heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, liver disease
~ Increased difficulty in interpersonal relationships due to above issues
~ Increased risk to become a perpetrator of ACEs

Want to talk with Dr. Snipes? Join our YouTube-Member's Only Discord Channel by becoming a Bronze member for $4.99 per month https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAE3JJi8tX7gfhZEXCUGd_A/join I am regularly on there and available to chat with members.

Video by Dr. Dawn Elise Snipes on integrative behavioral health approaches including counseling techniques and skills for improving mental health and reducing mental illness.

source